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Severity of Climate Induced Drought and its Impact on Livelihood
Neekita Joshi, Robert Dongol

Last modified: 2017-09-14

Abstract


Climate change and variability is the well accepted fact which causes water stress and has become one of the most pressing environmental problems round the globe. Drought, a slow phenomenon, increases severity in agriculture that is directly or indirectly linked with water. Livelihood of rural people in Nepal mainly depend on agriculture, therefore agricultural drought either results in livelihood diversification or most likely to increase the poverty. Thus, severity of drought leading to migration as a common livelihood strategy was studied in Pakarbas and Chisapani of Ramechhap District. The total annual rainfall was found to be decreasing whereas May, June and July were found to be the hottest months observed in temperature trend and 2009 had maximum temperature record (32.64°C). Similarly, dry months were observed to have slow increasing trend. For drought assessment and mapping, remote sensing analysis was adopted for three years 2006, 2009 and 2016 using Drought Exposure Indices such as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Land surface Temperature, Normalized Difference Water Index and Normalized Difference Drought Index. The drought exposure index in study area were high however; 2009 has maximum area (26231.07ha) exposed to drought. During 10 years of period, the major spring sources, river/streams, irrigation canal have dried completely which compelled the local people to migrate to other area where they can carry out agriculture activities. In conclusion, the major reason for seasonal/intra and inter district migration is mainly attributed to insufficient and year-round sources for livelihood of the communities.

Keywords: Climate Change, Drought; Livelihood and Migration


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