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A Model-ready Emission Inventory for Crop Residue Open Burning in the Context of Nepal
Bhupendra Das

Last modified: 2017-08-24


Bhupendra Das1,2, Prakash V. Bhave2, Kiran Shakya2, Rejina (Maskey) Byanju1

1Central Department of Environmental Science, Kirtipur, Nepal

2International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Lalitpur, Nepal



Nepal is a small, landlocked country which occupies an area of 147,181 sq. km with 28% agricultural land, in which more than 65% of the population engages in agriculture for livelihood and contributes one third of the national GDP. To better understand how the open burning of crop residue have been impairing local and regional air quality, a complete understanding of their emissions estimates based on the emission factors and high resolution technology-based mapping is indispensable. This study attempts to develop a fine-resolution, 1km x 1km gridded emissions inventory of Nepal for the 2008/2009 calendar year. Our inventory includes traditional air pollutants (NOx, SO2, CO, NMVOC, NH3), greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4), and particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5, BC, OC). Our gross emission estimates are calculated using equations in the Atmospheric Brown Clouds Emission Inventory Manual (UNEP, 2013). Thirty meter land use/land cover data is used to develop the gridded emission maps with the help of ARC-GIS version 10.3. Emission factors and other relevant parameters are taken from draft report of Emission Inventory of Atmospheric Brown Cloud Precursors in Nepal (RRCAP/UNEP, 2014). Our results suggest that the open burning of crop residue emits 1.6 Gg of NO2, 3.14 Gg of NO, 142.33 Gg of CO, 22.44 Gg of NMVOC, 25.41 Gg of PM10, 25 Gg of PM2.5, 1.54 Gg of BC, 8.30 Gg of OC, 4773 Gg of CO2, 4.86 Gg of CH4, 8.06 Gg of SO2, 1.37 Gg of NH3 and 0.23 Gg of N2O annually in Nepal. These values have been compared with existing estimates from other source that deserves attention from Nepali public and policy makers alike.


Key words: model-ready emission, crop residue, open burning, emission factors, air pollutants, Nepal

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