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A new technique for assessment of water quality – Biomarkers of Pollution
Shreeman Nirjhar Chandra Ray, Ramesh Chandra Sinha

Last modified: 2017-09-12

Abstract


A new technique for assessment of water quality – Biomarkers of Pollution

by

*1SNC Ray & 2RC Sinha

* Presenting Author

1CENC, Department of Zoology, Patna University, Patna, India; E-mail: nirjharray.76@gmail.com , Ph: +91-9334853036, +91-612-2372010

2CENC, Department of Zoology, Patna University, Patna, India; E-mail: rcsinha41@gmail.com,  Ph: +91-9835417970, +91-612-2372010

 

Abstract:

Biomarkers of pollution is the suite of parameters assay of biochemical, cellular, physiological or behavioural changes, performed on a test organism found in the concerned component of environment such as soil, air or water. Water quality refers to the condition of water with respect to the requirements of living organisms or any particular human need based upon prescribed standards. At present in India for water quality assessment two methods are in vogue, one is Physico- chemical method and the other one is Biomonitoring. Both methods have certain limitations. Biomonitoring reveal information posteriori whereas, physico- chemical method lacks the ecological approach. Biomarkers are prognostic and diagnostic tools. In the present study, Labeo rohita, the common carp were exposed to 1/3rd of LC50 of pesticide methyl parathion and enzymatic parameters were selected as biomarkers assessment and histological studies were performed to justify the results. Assay of enzyme lactate dehydrogenase in serum and muscle of the fish were done and histology of gills of the fish was studied. Ldh activity in serum of control fish in IU/L was 23.65±3.1 and that of 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h in IU/L were 23.13±1.7 (p<0.365), 68.32±7.3 (p<0.001), 33.28±5.08 (p<0.011) and 26.31±2.17 (p<0.048) respectively. Ldh muscle in IU/mg wet tissue was 528±10 and that of 24h, 48h, 72h and 96h were 1150±334, (p<0.003), 680±68 (p<0.343), 760±23 (p<0.034) and 1090±240 (p<0.004) respectively in IU/mg wet tissue. Treated fishes show deleterious changes in the gill lamellae. The results clearly indicate time bound changes in the biochemical biomarker enzyme activity and gill histology establishing that biomarkers of pollution can give momentary ecological condition of the water as well as the ambient condition of the water. Therefore biomarkers of pollution can be used as a complementary technique in water quality assessment by MoEF, GoI.

Keywords: Biomarkers of Pollution, Water- quality assessment, Methyl parathion, Lactate- dehydrogenase, Gill- histology


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