Mountains in the Chaning World, Mountains in the Chaning World

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PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF HOT SPRINGS OF MYAGDI DISTRICT, NEPAL FOR THE BALNEOTHERAPY AND DRINKING PURPOSES
Punam Yadav, Bhagwat Rimal, Sujan Shrestha, Lakshmaiah Sreerama, Tribikram Bhattarai, Jyoti Maharjan

Last modified: 2017-08-10

Abstract


This study describes for the first time physico-chemical characteristics of five hot springs viz; Sinkosh, Singha, Bhurung, Ratopani and Paudwar hot springs located in Myagdi district, Nepal. Of these hot springs Sinkosh, Ratopani and Paudwar are reported first time in this study. The water samples were analyzed for physical characters, major cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+),and major anions (Cl-, SO42-, NO3-, and HCO3-) and some trace elements e.g. Cu2+, Fe2+, F-, Hg2+, Se2-, B+, As3+, Cd2+ and NH4+. Physico-chemical results were compared with WHO and National Drinking Water Quality Standard (NDWQS) of Nepal. For balneotherapy suitability were compared to European Union (EU) and United States (US) spas standards. Temperature of the hot springs varied from 42.3 to 65.3 0C.The pH of the water samples in study area was slightly acidic to neutral (6.6 to 7.2) and electrical conductivity1462 to 2368 µS/cm. Piper diagram showed Na+ Cl- type water quality in all hot springs except Ratopani that shows "mixed" (Ca2+-Mg2+-Cl-)type water. Durov diagram revealed that, Bhurung and Ratopani hot springs water is in simple dissolution or mixing type, whereas Singha, Sinkosh and Paudwar hot springs possesses reverse ion exchange type. Schoeller diagram showed almost similar relative tendency of water in all the five hot springs. The hot springs water was above the permissible standard for drinking water, so water can be used only after certain treatment.  On the other hand, all of the parameters were within the acceptable standards for balneotherapy.


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